What Is the Biology of Insomnia?

What Is the Biology of Insomnia?

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep that can last for days or weeks (short-term insomnia) or for more than 6 months (chronic insomnia). Insomnia can be caused by biological factors such as anxiety, depression, sleep apnoea, genetics, and chronic conditions. It can also be caused by environmental factors such as…

What Are the Mechanisms of Wound Healing?

What Are the Mechanisms of Wound Healing?

Wound healing is a natural reaction of our body to tissue injury that involves crosstalk between different cells, cytokines, mediators, and the vascular system to repair the damaged tissue. It involves 4 main phases including homeostasis, inflammatory response, proliferation, and remodeling [1]. 1. What Are the Stages of Wound Healing? Homeostasis Phase This phase involves…

Is GDF11 a Rejuvenating Factor?

Is GDF11 a Rejuvenating Factor?

The growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) or bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-b) that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, and the immune system [1]. GDF11 has been proposed as a rejuvenating factor as it was reported that it restores skeletal…

What Is the Biology of Fear and Anxiety?

What Is the Biology of Fear and Anxiety?

Fear is a primitive human emotion that is caused by specific threat-related stimuli leading to adaptive behaviors aimed at preventing or coping with that threat. The central organ that controls and regulates fear is the amygdala, an almond-chapped structure located deep within the brain’s temporal lobes. 1. What Is the Function of the Amygdala in…

What Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

What Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is an illness characterized by profound disabling tiredness, a diminished capacity to perform routine tasks, and sleep disruption that lasts for more than 6 months. 1. Epidemiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Based on prevalence estimates from the Institute of Medicine, chronic fatigue syndrome affects around 0.2-2.6% of…

What Are the Applications of Nanomedicine?

What Are the Applications of Nanomedicine?

Nanomedicine is an area of medical applications that focuses on the use of nanotechnology for the diagnosis of diseases, delivery of drugs, and repair of damaged tissues in patients. The materials that are used by this technology are named nanomaterials due to their size which is within the nanometer range. 1. What Is a Nanomaterial?…

Video Gaming Effects on Mental Health

Video Gaming Effects on Mental Health

Approximately 2.7 billion video gamers were reported worldwide in 2020 and this number is likely to increase in the next years and decades with the development of new video gaming technologies such as digital technologies, including web-based and smartphone-based games delivery. Although video gaming is entertaining, its implications on mental health are beginning to emerge…