At What Age Does the Immune System Weaken?

At What Age Does the Immune System Weaken?

The immune system starts to become weak around the age of 60 years through a process known as immunosenescence. It is estimated that 2 billion people will have an age of over 60 by 2050 [1], and therefore, would be affected by immunosenescence. What Is Immunosenescence? Immunosenescence is the process of aging of our immune…

The Most Common Cause of Anemia in the Elderly

The Most Common Cause of Anemia in the Elderly

Iron Deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in the elderly. It is due to abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract such as stomach ulcers and cancer, and the reduction in iron supply through diet. It manifests with a reduced size and color of red blood cells. The prevalence of iron deficiency in individuals older…

What Are the Mechanisms of Wound Healing?

What Are the Mechanisms of Wound Healing?

Wound healing is a natural reaction of our body to tissue injury that involves crosstalk between different cells, cytokines, mediators, and the vascular system to repair the damaged tissue. It involves 4 main phases including homeostasis, inflammatory response, proliferation, and remodeling [1]. 1. What Are the Stages of Wound Healing? Homeostasis Phase This phase involves…

The Gut Flora and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The Gut Flora and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of “senile” plaques that are composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein that surround neurons in affected regions. This accumulation results in loss of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, leading to progressive cognitive decline such as memory defects. A connection between the brain and…

Epigenetic Diet and Longer Lifespan

Epigenetic Diet and Longer Lifespan

Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA interference, have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating the expression of genes that are involved in age-related diseases and longevity [1]. These mechanisms are mediated by modifying histone enzymes and noncoding RNAs. However, several environmental and dietary factors can lead to their imbalance, leading…