What Are the Five Signs of Narcolepsy?

What Are the Five Signs of Narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder affecting the sleep-wake cycles characterized by the following symptoms: In the United States, narcolepsy affects 1 in 2000 people, while it affects 3 million people worldwide [1]. Although narcolepsy can happen at any age, it is typically observed in individuals between the age of 10 and 30 years old….

What are the arteries that supply blood to the brain?

What are the arteries that supply blood to the brain?

The brain receives blood from two pairs of arteries: the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries which come together to form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain [1]. 1. Internal Carotid Arteries Internal carotid arteries consist of the left internal carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery which run…

What Drugs Are Used to Treat Vertigo?

What Drugs Are Used to Treat Vertigo?

Vertigo is an illusion of being in movement or that your surrounding is in movement. It manifests with nausea, vomiting, sweating, and walking difficulty. Treatment of acute vertigo and associated nausea and vomiting involves the following drugs [1]: 1. What Are the Most Common Causes of Vertigo? Vertigo can be caused by acute unilateral vestibular…

What Is the Difference Between Sedatives and Anxiolytics?

What Is the Difference Between Sedatives and Anxiolytics?

Sedatives are drugs that reduce excitation and irritability, while anxiolytics are drugs that treat anxiety disorders such as social disorder or panic disorder. However, excitation and irritability are symptoms of anxiety disorders, and therefore, both are used for the treatment of anxiety disorders. 1. What Is Excitability and Irritability? Excitation is a physiologic transition from…

What Are Anticonvulsant Drugs Used For?

What Are Anticonvulsant Drugs Used For?

Anticonvulsant drugs, also known as antiepileptic or antiseizure drugs, are used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. Based on the type and mechanism of action, anticonvulsant drugs are grouped into the following categories: 1. What Is Epileptic Seizure? An epileptic seizure is a neurological disorder due to an abnormally excessive, and repetitive neuronal activity in…

What Does Analgesic Do to the Body?

What Does Analgesic Do to the Body?

Analgesics or pain killers are drugs used to relieve pain without losing consciousness. They are classified into the following categories: Nonopioid Analgesics include drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, and dipyrone. Opioid Analgesics or narcotic analgesics include drugs such as morphine, codeine, tramadol, and tapentadol. Adjuvant Analgesics include drugs such as GABA agonists,…

What Part of the Brain Controls Executive Function?

What Part of the Brain Controls Executive Function?

Executive functions are mainly controlled by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex [1]. 1. What Are the Executive Functions? Executive functions are higher-level cognitive skills and processes that are necessary for the control and coordination of other cognitive abilities and behaviors…

What Part of the Brain Controls Breathing?

What Part of the Brain Controls Breathing?

What Part of the Brain Controls Breathing? Understanding the intricate mechanisms of respiration is vital for grasping the complexities of human physiology. Among the myriad functions orchestrated by the brain, the regulation of breathing stands as one of the most crucial. Delving into neuroscience, we explore how the brain intricately controls the rhythm and depth…

What Part of the Brain Is Responsible for Speech and Language?

What Part of the Brain Is Responsible for Speech and Language?

Speech and language are controlled by several areas in the brain, including Broca’s area in the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere, Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere, and the angular gyrus in the parietal lobe. 1. The Broca’s Area 1.1. What Is the Function of the Broca’s Area? The…

What Are the Main Functions of the Cerebellum?

What Are the Main Functions of the Cerebellum?

The cerebellum is situated at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa (the most posterior part of the skull base) and has the following functions: However, functional imaging studies indicated its potential involvement in cognition, including working memory, executive functioning (e.g., attention, reasoning, and problem-solving), time perception, language, and emotional processing [1]….