The Tumor Microenvironment: A Malignancy Bunker

The Tumor Microenvironment: A Malignancy Bunker

The tumor microenvironment (TME) or tumor niche is a highly heterogeneous complex that is comprised of cells such as stromal cells, immune cells, epithelial cells, and a network of extracellular macromolecules. This complex provides support for cancer cells within the extracellular matrix (EC) and plays a key role in promoting their progression into a more…

Cancer Stem Cells and Resistance to Drugs

Cancer Stem Cells and Resistance to Drugs

Stem cells are responsible for the generation of all tissues and organs within the body. When these cells become mutated at the gene level (DNA), they become cancerous and are named cancer stem cells [1]. These cancer cells are thought to provide resistance to chemotherapy and relapse in cancer patients. The mutations can affect embryonic…