At What Age Does the Immune System Weaken?

At What Age Does the Immune System Weaken?

The immune system starts to become weak around the age of 60 years through a process known as immunosenescence. It is estimated that 2 billion people will have an age of over 60 by 2050 [1], and therefore, would be affected by immunosenescence. What Is Immunosenescence? Immunosenescence is the process of aging of our immune…

Is GDF11 a Rejuvenating Factor?

Is GDF11 a Rejuvenating Factor?

The growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) or bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-b) that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, and the immune system [1]. GDF11 has been proposed as a rejuvenating factor as it was reported that it restores skeletal…

What Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

What Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is an illness characterized by profound disabling tiredness, a diminished capacity to perform routine tasks, and sleep disruption that lasts for more than 6 months. 1. Epidemiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Based on prevalence estimates from the Institute of Medicine, chronic fatigue syndrome affects around 0.2-2.6% of…

The Gut Flora and Long Lifespan

The Gut Flora and Long Lifespan

The gut flora is a heterogeneous population of micro-organisms that includes bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and that plays important role in the digestion and absorbance of food. Transplantation of fecal microbiota from younger mice (Donor) to older (Recipient) enhanced their health and lifespan (longevity). During the process of aging, the function of beneficial microbes, that…