How Does Smell Get from the Nose to the Brain?

How Does Smell Get from the Nose to the Brain?

Odorous substances in the air are processed through the following steps: 1. What Part of the Brain Is Most Responsible for Smell? There are several and important parts of the brain that are responsible for smell; however, the olfactory bulb is responsible for transmitting the olfactory (smell) information from the olfactory nerves to the brain…

What Is Neuroinflammation of the Brain?

What Is Neuroinflammation of the Brain?

Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of the brain or the spinal cord due to the production of cytokines, chemokines, secondary messengers, and reactive oxygen species. 1- What Are cytokines? Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by white blood cells, such as lymphocytes T and lymphocytes B, and endothelial cells, mast cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal cells….

What Are the 7 Major Neurotransmitters (and Their Role in Diseases)?

What Are the 7 Major Neurotransmitters (and Their Role in Diseases)?

Neurotransmitters are messengers that transmit specific chemical instructions from a neuron to another neuron and from neurons to tissues and organs. The 7 major neurotransmitters are: Neurotransmitters are produced by neurons and released in gaps that are found between neurons and between neurons and organs. These junctions are known as synapses. When neurotransmitters are released…

Exercise and Cognitive Deficits

Exercise and Cognitive Deficits

Exercise and Cognitive Deficits are two interconnected aspects of overall health and well-being that have gained increasing attention in recent years. While cognitive deficits can impact various aspects of daily life, including memory, attention, and decision-making, exercise has emerged as a promising intervention for improving cognitive function. This article delves into the fascinating relationship between…

The Gut Flora and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The Gut Flora and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of “senile” plaques that are composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein that surround neurons in affected regions. This accumulation results in loss of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, leading to progressive cognitive decline such as memory defects. A connection between the brain and…